S. Vedat Karaarslan Archaeologist
Trepanation goes back to 10,000 BC as the oldest known method of surgical intervention in history. In this method, it was believed that by removing a bone from the head, the evil spirits within a person would be expelled in mental illnesses such as epilepsy.
The Austrian neuroscientist Franz Gall (1758-1828) was the first theorist of the phrenological brain theory, which he divided into 26 different regions in 1806, suggesting that each region of the brain works according to its different functional properties. Gall, who searched for all mental functions in these separated biological parts of the brain, claimed that each part worked differently.
Franz Josef Gall
According to Franz Gall, each piece determines a person's behavior, by seeing which area is more protruding and bulging by the method of handling over the skull, almost the whole character of the human being is 'phreno', such as the one with the big forehead being the smarter and the one with the big ear being a good musical piece producer. character) was determined by phrenologists dealing with the science of phrenology, a nomenclature produced from the word. In short, although the shape of the human head is determined by the character and despite Gall's opposition to its name, head reading has become a commercial business, and a 'head reading' market has been formed subject to a fee, and thus people have started to determine careers. Gall's suggestion was that this branch of science should be called 'craniology'.
Frenoloji Nedir? Frenoloji Neden Sahte Bir Bilimdir? - Bilgify
                                                         FRANZ JOSEPH GALL 
Against phrenologists like Descartes looking for the soul in the human head, the American poet Walt Whitman suggests that the intelligence of a person cannot be measured from a skull, with the example that the money inside cannot be understood when a safe is hit on the door, but Fowler, who will later develop the science of phrenology by taking the phreneology test, said 'phrenology, the last of irrationality. stage 'he had opposed, saying. Descartes, who says that he is on the 'pineal' gland in the brain, which he describes as the place where the human soul evolves by touching with the body, was found to be 'mental and logical undeveloped' as a result of his phrenological measurements due to his small head and he was not a great thinker as thought by those who made measurements. the result was reached. Whitman wrote that the soul and body were integrated in his poems and even wrote poems in this direction during the American Civil War.
On the other hand, according to ancient Chinese wisdom, the art of face reading was based on the principle of numbering the facial region according to the age of the person, like "mianxiang" phrenology. For example, in the evaluation of 1-6 years of age, the left ear lines for men and the right ear lines for women should be evaluated, while for 65 years old, the upper left part of the chin near the lip for men and the area of ​​the chin near the left lip for women should be evaluated and read. must. According to the ancient Chinese wisdom, according to the art of jaw reading, a strong jaw structure is seen as a fleshy, protruding structure and an upwardly curved expression of the age-old trend in terms of showing vitality at the age of 50-65. Looking at the physical condition of the relevant region for an assessment of the shape of the relevant region on the face for each age determines the characteristic features of the person.
This branch of science called physiognomy, and in later years called as so-called science, unlike phrenology, which was defined as skullcapism and could not answer the question 'is human being born guilty?' [1] from his rejection for its appearance, [1] Leonardo's likeness of physiognomy to a 'chimera', a fiery monster, to the idea that only later lines caused by facial expressions could determine character. According to him, it is certain that those with lines between the eyebrows are more angry and irritable. The siddhars, who were Indian sages, defined samudrika lakshanam astrology, which defined body and personal characteristics.
Today, although phrenology is known as a non-scientific method, the presence of the language region in the brain where speech disorders occur and the mind region in the cortex membrane are still known as the areas used by modern medicine. As a result of the clinical trials of the Benton Face Recognition test used in modern medicine, it has been revealed that the lesions in the cerebral part of the right hemisphere of the brain (organ and tissue disorder that cause diseases) can disrupt facial perception.
Today, theories of face reading and phrenology are still partially used.
[1] However, Cylon is rumored to have hardly saved the life of Pythagoras, who later raided the school of Pythagoras and killed the "mathematikoi".
[2] https://habit5.co.uk/2015/09/the-man-behind-the-head/
[3] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11844898_Determinants_of_Benton_Facial_Recognition_Test_performance_in_normal_adults